Wednesday, 21 December 2011

2012 Seed Orders

Dear All

Yes, that time of year is nearly upon us and it's time to start curling up with the seed catalogue for next year.

As in previous years, we can offer members a 35% discount on many seeds from the Mr Fothergills seed catalogue.

Catalogues are available to borrow from the allotment shop (open Sunday 10am - 12noon on Dec 18th, then from 8th Jan 2012) or can be found online at:

The list of seeds which attract the 35% discount and the allotment association seed order form are available on request from the association ( or at the Allotment Shop on Scarcroft.

Please use the association form to place your seed order; either drop it off at the shop or email a copy of it back to

Don't send any money in yet; we'll let you know the total when the seeds have arrived.

Any questions just drop us a line to the above address, otherwise happy browsing, planning and ordering!

Tuesday, 15 November 2011

Scarcroft and District Allotments Associatio​n 2012 Calendar

The Scarcroft & District Allotments Association 2012 Calendar is now on sale!

The calendars are only £5 each.

Stock up now to ensure you have enough to give away as Christmas presents!

They are now available from the Allotment Shop, Pextons Hardware and Frankie & Johnny's Cookshop (newly opened on Bishopthorpe Road).

The calendars will also be available at the Allotment Association Social Gathering the Golden Ball on Friday 18th July:

Community Arts & Crafts

Heather Dawe - Christmas Decorations from Natural Materials ... Rosedale Sue - Country Crafts ... Karen Free - Contemporary Ceramics ... Ian Cameron - Artist ... Herald Armer - Handmade Glass ... Joanna Oak - Handmade bags & Gifts ... Jo ‘The Olive Heron’ ... Susie Thomson - ‘Inside Out’ using recycled materials ... Jane McWeeny - Fancy Hats ... Renni Prelle - Reflexology & Indian Head Massage ... Di’s Material World ... Marianne von Tucka - Ceramics ... David Cook - Sculptor ... Holly Hennell - Hand-Made Cards ... Kate Harper Jewellery ... Eleanor Jones - In Pieces ... Sadim Habib - Little Giant ... Carrie - Happypig Design ... Gaynor’s Glorious Tea Parties

Tuesday, 8 November 2011

Potato Availability & Prices 2012‏

Seed Potato Orders Deadline - 30th November 2011

Below is the full list of seed potatoes which will be available for the coming season.

Unfortunately, once again last year, we had some wastage on seed potatoes. This year we shall only have a small level of surplus stock over and above that pre-ordered by members and the range of stock varieties has been reduced.

To ensure your requirements are met you are strongly urged to place your seed potato order, either by e-mail to or directly at the allotment shop, before 30th November.
Once again it is the intention to purchase the varieties marked in
red in bulk which will enable us to retail these at what we believe is still a very competitive price of £1-20 per kg ( Pink Fir Apple £1-40 per kg ).

All other varieties are available to order in 2.5 kg nets priced around £3-75, however, if there is sufficient demand for a particular variety then these could also be purchased in bulk with a subsequent price reduction.

We regret that we are unable to split 2.5kg bags but you may be able to arrange to share a bag with a fellow plot holder.

First Earlies:

Arran Pilot
Home Guard
Pentland Javelin
Ulster Prince
Ulster Sceptre
Sharpes Express
Duke of York
Maris Bard
Red Duke of York
International Kidney
Lady Christl

Second Earlies:

Maris Peer
British Queen
Edgecote Purple
Ulster Sovereign

Main Crop:

Pentland Crown
Pentland Dell
Pentland Squire
Maris Piper
King Edward
Golden Wonder
Kerrs Pink
Pink Fir Apple
Blue Belle
Edzell Blue
Sarpo Mira

Wednesday, 26 October 2011

Scarcroft & District Allotment Association Autumn Social

Scarcroft & District Allotment Association Autumn Social

At the Golden Ball, 2 Cromwell Road, York

Come along to catch up and to discuss what we hope has been another eventful and productive year of gardening for everyone, plot-holders and home gardeners alike

There will be a buffet and a fine selection of drinks available from the bar - as well as good company, of course!

Thursday, 20 October 2011

Allotment Shop Opening Hours

A reminder regarding seasonal changes to the opening hours of the Allotment Shop on Scarcroft Allotments.

At present the Shop opening hours are as follows:
Saturdays 13.30 - 15.30
Sundays 10.00 - 12.00 

Throughout the winter months - November, December and January - the Allotment Shop will be open on SUNDAYS ONLY, but we will be returning to Saturday and Sunday opening from February 2012.

Please make a note of these changes and times, so you are not caught short when shopping for your winter supplies!

Full details about the shop can be found on its Blog Page:

Wednesday, 12 October 2011

Apple Day Celebration - A message from Laura Potts


Dear friends,

Let's celebrate Apple Day on Saturday October 15th at our very own orchard - in the middle of the Green on Scarcroft Allotments.

Although there won't be much by way of a harvest from this year, there will be a varied selection of apples and pears for us to sample and enjoy.

Do bring along any you have too, with names if you know them.

Contributions of fruit-based delights to share for an afternoon tea would be very welcome too. Bring a flask if you want a hot drink - or juices.  Plastic cups will be provided.

There will be bit of work to do to build up your appetite: We need to weed around the bases of the trees, and then to plant up the area with some traditional orchard meadow flowers - now I have finally succeeded in preventing the council mowing it to within a millimetre of its life!

Do bring any donations of plants you may have, trowels and watering cans.

The schedule for the afternoon is as follows:

3-4pm - planting watering weeding

4-5pm - tasting and feasting

hope to see you there

Tuesday, 27 September 2011

Helping Yorkshire's Hedgehogs

Britain’s hedgehogs are in serious decline and the hedgehog has been placed on the Red List of threatened species in need of conservation

A course, consisting of an illustrated talk and workshop, will be held by Toni Bunnell
from 13.30 to 16:00 on Sunday 6th November

The workshop will be held at the Black Swan Inn, 23 Peasholme Green, York, YO1 7PR [01904 679 131]

To secure a place on the course, please send a cheque for £10 (made out to ‘T. Bunnell’) to 5 Beech Avenue, Holgate, York, YO24 4JJ

Course content:

Reasons for the decline of hedgehogs in Britain
First aid treatment for new arrivals
Further treatment of sick or injured hedgehogs
Caring for baby hedgehogs
Attracting hedgehogs to your garden
Monitoring hedgehogs in the wild

Proceeds to go to York Hedgehog Rescue Centre
with 10% to go to Hull Hedgehog Rescue Centre (Lorraine Jackson)

For information contact: Toni Bunnell (01904 791124)

Thursday, 22 September 2011

Spare Plants Wanted for South Bank

Planet South Bank & Edible York have a plot at St Clements and are currently very keen to source Some strawberry plants, as they plan to underplant some of their old rose bushes with them.

They are also on the look out for perennial herbs (rosemary, lavender etc), for their plot.

If any allotment holders or home growers have any suitable plants going ‘spare’ following a seasonal plot tidy, donations can be left at the Planet South Bank & Edible York plot at St Clements.

Any donations will be greatly appreciated I am sure.

Planet South Bank promote Climate change awareness and local action in South Bank, York.

Edible York are a small group of dedicated  individuals who are committed to nurturing existing food growing spaces in the City and bringing new food growing spaces to life.

For more information about the work of these great local organisations, or for details as to how you can join, see the below links:

Chutney Making event at Scarcroft Learning Centre

The Planet South Bank & Edible York plot at St Clements grew a bucket-full of green tomatoes, so they are going to make chutney from them.

All are welcome to come along for chutney tips to help with any Green Tomato Glut you might be facing from your own harvests.

The Chutney Making Event is this Saturday 24th September, at the Scarcroft Learning Centre, starting at 10am.

The Scarcroft Learning Centre is located at Scarcroft School at the corner of the school playground and can be accessed from Nunthorpe Road.

This is a FREE event and all are welcome. Planet South Bank & Edible York would love to have any volunteers to help – and to take away some chutney at the end!

Sunday, 18 September 2011

The Urban Horticulture Programme

The Urban Horticulture Programme at the Centre for Lifelong Learning

This year’s modules focus on the health, educational, social, economic, practical, environmental, and policy dimensions of local food. Combining guest speakers, visits, practical work and theoretical learning, the course will help you develop your understanding of the potential of urban horticulture in the twenty-first century.

You may be:

already involved in a community food project….

a keen gardener who would like to be….

a social worker or therapist wondering how to help your clients get out more…

a teacher trying to develop the school garden…


You may simply believe that food production is at the centre of society’s problems and their solutions, and want to find out more.

This FREE Saturday School introduces the year’s programme and we get straight down to some practical activities to explore society’s relationship with food. Come along and see which module(s) might be for you! (Existing UH students also very welcome)

SATURDAY SCHOOL: 1st October 2011, 10am-12noon

AUTUMN TERM Oct-Dec 2011: Society, food security and health

SPRING TERM Jan-Apr 2012: Scaling up to the community, national and global level

SUMMER TERM Apr-Jun 2012: Policy and the future

For more information or to enrol: or call 01904 328473

Friday, 2 September 2011

Over-Wintering Onions & Garlic

Over-Wintering Onions & Garlic
now on sale in the Allotment Shop


Senshyu    £3.50 per kg
Electric     £4.00 per kg


£16.50 per kg
£1.65 per average bulb

(there are approximately 15 cloves per bulb)

Anti-social behaviour and worse - Making a difference.

There have been several incidents of theft, vandalism and anti-social behaviour recently on our sites.  So maybe now is a good time to re-visit advice we posted here at the beginning of this year.
  • If you see someone threatening or attacking another person or damaging property, such as breaking glass on a greenhouse or breaking into a shed, call 999. 
  • If the incident is less serious, including, say, a group of people on a plot who obviously shouldn't be there, call 0845 60 60 24 7. 
  • Please always report any damage you find on your own plot to the police and encourage your neighbours to do the same.
  • In cases where damage has been done or tools or produce stolen, it can be helpful  to let the Allotments Officer know about it, and please do report it at the Shop on the Scarcroft site, where you can pick up a card with the relevant contact numbers and e-mail addresses.  The Association keeps a record of incidents reported to them and this is passed on to our local PCSO, but all incidents should first be reported to the police directly.

The police may not be able to do anything about non immediate crimes, unless there are witnesses, but telling them about what crime is happening on the plots with as much detail as possible about what, when and where, helps them build up a picture of the key times and areas and allows them to adjust their patrolling patterns accordingly.  You can make a difference to the level of crime on our plots by doing the following:
  • don't leave any valuables in your sheds or hidden on your plots
  • mark any tools you do leave on your plot so that they are less easy to sell on
  • don't leave petrol on your plot as it can be used to set fire to sheds
  • don't leave weedkiller on your plots as it can be used to vandalise other plots
  • either leave your sheds and greenhouses unlocked or lock them with a very sturdy lock
  • get to know your neighbours and challenge people you don't recognise (if you feel safe to do so).  Remember most paths on the sites are not public rights or way so people are trespassing if they are not going to visit a plot.
  • always take your phone with you when you go to your plot so you can call the police if you see vandalism in action or call a friend to come and join you if you feel threatened
  • make friends with your local dog walkers as they can be our eyes and ears early in the morning and later in the evening when fewer plot holders are around
  • display the 'there are no valuables in this shed' sign on your shed - these are available free from the allotment shop
  • visit your plot regularly so, if you are the victim of a crime you are able to give more accurate information as to when it happened
It's very upsetting when these things happen.  We won't ever stop it completely. but we can help the police to reduce the number of incidents and follow them up.


Saturday, 27 August 2011

Patrick Cairns

It is with great sadness that we share the news that long term plot holder, allotment shop volunteer, allotment association committee member, Leeds United fan and friend, Patrick Cairns, died suddenly on August 16th 2011.  He was only 47.  We wish his mother, Pat, who gardened his plot with him, and the rest of his family, strength and comfort at this difficult time.


For many years, Patrick was a familiar face on Sunday mornings in the Scarcroft and District allotment association shop, which he ran with Tom Walters.  He will be sadly missed. 

Patrick's Funeral Service will be held on Friday, September 2nd at English Martyrs RC Church, Dalton Terrace at 11am, followed by a Burial in Fulford Cemetery. Family flowers only, donations in memory of Patrick will be gratefully received to support St Leonard’s Hospice. A plate will be available at the Church.

Wednesday, 24 August 2011

Harlow Carr

Thanks to everyone involved in the visit to Harlow Carr, especially to Katy, who did so much of the organisation.  It was a great day out with near perfect weather! 

Expect to see adventurous features on our allotment plots soon...?

Tuesday, 16 August 2011

Potato Blight Information

Recent rain and mild weather have produced ideal conditions for potato blight.

The link below takes you to some useful information on recognising the symptoms of blight, dealing with infected foliage and choosing blight resistant varieties for next year’s crops.

The following link leads to The Blightwatch service, a management tool which is available to farmers and other users free of charge.

Sunday, 14 August 2011

Harlow Carr Visit - 2011

Hello all,

We are organising a trip to Harlow Carr on Wednesday 24th August.

Attendance will be via "car share", so let us know if you will be a driver of if you will need a lift.

If you would like to attend please contact Katy Brierley:, by Wednesday 17th August, specifying if you require transport or can offer space in your car.

More details about Harlow Carr can be found via the following link:

If you wish to attend, we will be setting off from the shop on Scarcroft Allotments at 09:30 on the 24th and will be meeting at Harlow Carr at 10:30.

You may wish to bring a picnic, otherwise refreshments can be purchased on site.

Best Plot Competition 2011

The winners of this year's Best Plot Competition were presented with their certificates and prizes at The Guildhall on Wednesday 10th August.
The winner on the Hob Moor site was Valerie Warren,

and the Scarcroft site winners were Katy and John Brierley. 
 Congratulations to all the winners! And thanks to everyone who took part - the standard of entries this year was very high. Particular thanks to Judith Ward and Sue Harvey at City of York Council for organising and running the event, and to Site Secretaries who judged the plots.   

Thursday, 11 August 2011

End of Summer Feast 2012

Come along to the Scarcroft and District Allotment Association End of Summer Feast

Scarcroft Allotments - Sunday 4th September

12:30 till 15:00

Everybody is welcome, and we hope you all enjoy sharing the benefits of a healthy 2012 harvest.

Bring your own food and drink, made from your own produce, to share on what we hope will be a fun day for all.

You may also want to bring some folding chairs (if you don't have far to carry them!), or even some instruments if you want to provide a home-made soundtrack to go with the home-made food on offer.

The feast will be at the Alotment Shop on Scarcroft Allotments, so there will be some shelter available if the weather is a little less that bright.

 Attractions and Distractions will include:

Plot on a Plate, show off the variety of your own personal harvest
Vegetable Monsters, creative fun for kids (and grown ups)
Apple Bobbing
Jam and Chutney swap
And more...

Most of all, this will be a chance for Plot Holders and Home Growers to get together to discuss the ups and downs of another year of gardening, to swap tips as well as treats and to catch up with one another.

Please come along to join the fun and to share in what promises to be a lovely afternoon of food and drink and harvest festivities.

The Allotment Shop - Opening Hours

There will be a few changes to the opening hours at the Allotment Shop on Scarcroft over the coming months.

At present the Shop opening hours are as follows:
Saturdays 13.30 - 15.30
Sundays 10.00 - 13.00

From 1st September 2011, the Sunday opening hours will be 10:00 - 12:00

Saturday opening will remain 13:30 - 15:30

Throughout the winter months - November, December and January - the Allotment Shop will be open on SUNDAYS ONLY, but we will be returning to Saturday and Sunday opening from February 2012.

Please make a note of these changes and times, so you are not caught short of your winter supplies!

Full details about the shop can be found on its Blog Page:

Tuesday, 28 June 2011

Hedgehog News

Thank you to Sara for this lovely photo of a Hedgehog which she spotted out on the Scarcroft allotments.

As Sara pointed out, this photo shows why it's not always a good idea to have a fence that goes right down to the ground, as although you might deter the rabbits the hedgehogs can't get in or out to eat your slugs!

Thursday, 23 June 2011

The Scarcroft and District Allotment Association 2012 Calendar

Calendar Submissions - last chance

A reminder that you might all wish to take photos of your plots for next year's Scarcroft Calendar.

The deadline for submissions is this Sunday, 16th October

 The suggested theme for the 2012 Calendar is Vegetables, Fruit & Flower from Seed & Blossom, through Growth to Harvest.

We hope that each page in the 2012 Calendar might be devoted to a particular vegetable, fruit or flower - showing all stages of growth from seed to harvest.

The calendar is open to submissions from plot holders and home gardeners.  There is still time to get out in your plots and gardens to get photos of your own produce, or if you have any photos saved which you feel might be worthy of submission, please dig them out and send them in!

It's nearly time to begin the selection process for the calendar, so start collecting your photos together and send them to:

The closing date for submissions is Sunday 16th October.

Happy Snapping!

Tuesday, 21 June 2011

Allotment Plot Competition 2011

Posted on behalf of Judith Ward, York Allotments Officer

Dear Allotment Gardeners

Thank you to those people who have sent in nominations for this year's Allotment Competition.  If you've not done so yet, there's still time to nominate plots or to enter your own plot for judging.  Entries and nominations will be accepted up to Friday June 24th.

You can send your nominations by e-mail to 

The competition celebrates the skill, hard work and imagination of York’s allotment gardeners.   Is there a plot near yours that cheers up passers by with its flowers, or keeps  several families in fruit and veg?  Have you overcome brambles, docks and thistles on your plot to establish a garden you can be proud of?

Plots will be judged in June and July by a team of allotment site secretaries.  The judges will score each plot on variety and health of the crops, the layout and maintenance of the plot and any special features.  If you’d like a copy of the score sheet please contact Sue Harvey on (01904 553433).

This year the judges have also been invited to recommend plots that deserve special recognition; maybe a new tenant who has transformed a derelict plot in a single season, an older gardener who has kept up high standards over many years or an outstanding community garden.    If you’d like to nominate a plot for special recognition, please give the reasons why this allotment garden is out of the ordinary.

Once again we are very grateful to the competition sponsors.   Brunswick Organic Nursery, Deans Garden Centre and Vertigrow Plant Nursery have all donated vouchers and Nick Milner will be supplying a set of traditional bean poles for each of four area winners.

Prizes will be presented at a special event at the Guildhall, during National Allotments Week in August.

Sunday, 12 June 2011

Working Party July 3rd

Help to improve the Shop and the area around it and have a party at the same time (well, just after...)

On Sunday 3rd July from 2 p.m. we'll be working to lay on a water supply to the Shop and to improve the appearance and the amenity of the area around the shop and car park.  the work will be followed by a share of food and drink at 4.30 to reward ourselves for the hard work.  Come along and join in if you can - the more people, the better the party and the lighter the work!


Monday, 6 June 2011

Hedgehog Preservation

Local gardener and Hedgehog Rescuer Toni Bunnell will be featured in a report about how to make a hedgehog-friendly garden on the new Alan Titchmarsh programme, Love Your Garden, on ITV later this month.

It will be screened on Friday June 17 at 8pm and will show her hedgehog rescue centre in York, as well as her wildlife garden and two of her hedgehogs being released at York Minster Gardens.

This is a fantastic local interest feature, and I hope you can all tune in.

If, like Toni, you have a soft spot for hedgehogs you can find out more about how you can help the preservation effort at:

Toni's own website can be found at:

Monday, 30 May 2011

Butterfly Conservation, Yorkshire Branch, upcoming events.

There will be a series of events in and around York over the coming weeks and months organised by Butterfly Conservation.

The events will involve guided walks through local areas of environmental interest, with a view to spotting all forms of wildlife and interesting plants, as well as butterflies of course.

The locations and dates of the upcoming events are as follows:

West Bank Park, York
Saturday, 4th June 2011 from 11:00

"Dalbyology" Forestry Commission Event - Dalby Forest Visitor Centre
Sunday, 5th June 2011 from 10:30 - 16:00

Clifton Backies, York
Sunday, 5th June 2011 from 11:00

Shipley Station Butterfly Meadow
Saturday, 18th June 2011 from 13:00

Saturday 18th June 2011 from 10:30

Bastow Wood
Sunday, 26th June 2011 from 10:00

Upper Newtondale
Rapers Farm Picnic Area
Saturday, 9th July 2011 from 10:00

St Nicholas Fields, York
Saturday, 30th July 2011 from 10:00

Hob Moor, York
Saturday, 30th July 2011 from 14:00-16:00

The Whins and Bridle Butterfly Walk
Shelley Whins and Bridle and Thunderbridge Meadows
Saturday, 6th August 2011 from 10:30
(or Sunday 7th August 13:00 if weather is poor)

Gunnerside and Low Row
Rowleth Great Wood, Swaledale
Saturday, 13th August 2011 from 10:30

And of course...

Insect Festival 2011 - Yorkshire Museum Gardens, York
Sunday, 3rd July 2011 from 10:00 to 16:00
As well as BC Yorkshire There will be a wide range of exhibits and activities, including:

Live insect displays (bees, hoverflies, aquatic insects and more)
CSI: Crime Scene Insects
Minibeast hunts around the Museum Gardens with experienced entomologists
National and regional natural history societies
The National Insect Week award-winning photographic display
Entomology book and equipment sellers
A Chance to build your own insect home for your garden
Face painting, creepy-crawly cupcakes, insect art and much much more...

The public are encouraged to bring their insect specimens or photos to be identified with the help of our team of IDENTomologists.

Come along for a day of insect fun in the beautiful Yorkshire Museum Gardens. Entry is free for under 16's and only £1 for adults.

Full details of all of these events, as well as contact details for the organisers, can be found at:

Please note - dogs are not allowed on field trips.  Children are welcome but must be accompanied by an adult.  Most walks follow rough tracks and require strong footwear.  Be prepared for all weathers.  Sun protection is advised.

The above field trips are open to all, you don't have to be a member of Butterfly Conservation, but if you are interested in joining the required information can be found here:

Friday, 13 May 2011

Tree Warden Training Day - Saturday 14th May

A Tree Warden training day with Derek Austin takes place at York Cemetery on Saturday 14th May and with bright weather forecast it should be a splendid day.

Derek promises a packed agenda including sessions dealing with the latest on tree law, pest and diseases, arborcultural tools and instruments, tree ID plus plenty of tree TLC.  Something for everybody!

Bring a packed lunch, outdoor gear for the day and small hand tools including handsaws, secateurs and loppers.

You may invite members of other environmental/conservation groups - its for free!

The day begins at 9.30 am and will end around 4.30 pm.  See you there.

Saturday, 23 April 2011

Government Review of Statutory Duties - Links & Tips

Further to the previous post regarding the upcoming government review, which could threaten the provision of allotments, here are some more links and guidance with regards to the online forms and what we can all do to help.

The Government has announced a "Review of statutory duties", aimed at identifying and removing duties from local authorities which are a "burden".  One of the duties they are considering removing is the duty to provide sufficient number of allotments for people in the area who want one. This means ALL allotments, including existing ones, not just new ones.


Look at the Government's web page on "Review of statutory duties placed on local government" at:

Then fill in the "Statutory duties webform" which is in the top right-hand corner, or go to:

Time is short. We have only until 25 April.

The form is a bit confusing, so please find below some model answers which you can use, or you could of course write your own. But do fill in the form!

Statutory duties webform questions, with some suggested answers:

1. Please quote the reference number for the duty or duties you are commenting on.

2. What does this duty help local authorities to achieve?
Provide sufficient number of allotments for those in their area that want one.

3. Does undertaking this duty present local authorities with a burden?

4. In your opinion, could this duty be removed?

5. What are the particular benefits of this duty being removed and who would benefit?

6. What do you consider are the adverse effects of removing this duty and who would this affect?
We could lose many allotments just at a time they have become hugely popular in
many sections of the community, and when were are increasingly concerned about
the need for more exercise and a healthy diet for individuals, and about food security
for the nation...

7. Are you aware of any guidance - statutory or non-statutory - associated regulations or powers that are associated with this duty? If so please list them here.
Non statutory guidance: "Allotments: A plot holders' guide" at

8. In your opinion are powers and/or guidance helpful or do they create a burden?
The guidance is helpful.

9. Would you like to add any general comments about this particular duty?
Local government allotment provision has functioned well and at very little expense for many years.
The benefits to the public are difficult to measure, but must be substantial, and reach beyond allotment
holders and their families to the community at large...

Tuesday, 19 April 2011

Your chance to have your say - local council allotment provision

Our local council allotments officer has drawn our attention to the following, which should be of interest to all.

The duty of local councils to provide allotments is included in an ongoing government review of 'burdens' on local authorities.

 Please follow the below link to see details of this "review of statutory duties placed on local government":
Allotments are only mentioned at line 137 of the first spreadsheet, so this item takes some finding.

The review is under consultation until next Monday, April 25th and responses are invited from the general public as well as from councillors and council staff.

If you'd like to register your views, follow the link on the right of the web page to the  'Statutory duties webform'.  It's quite quick and simple to complete.